Macmillan Publishers is a global trade book publishing company with prominent imprints around the world. Macmillan publishes a broad range of award-winning books for children and adults in all categories and formats. Macmillan Publishers is a division of the Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, a large family-owned media company headquartered in Computer science group, Germany.
Macmillan Learning improves lives through learning. Through deep partnership with the world’s best researchers, educators, administrators and developers, we facilitate teaching and learning opportunities that improve student engagement and success. Our legacy of excellence in higher education informs our approach to developing world-class content and pioneering education tools. Based in the US and Canada, we work every day to provide educators with tailored, interactive course solutions. Macmillan Education supports students, instructors and institutions through a lifetime of learning by providing them with world-class content in the most relevant, engaging and flexible formats. Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations. Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers.
Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Charles Babbage is sometimes referred as “father of computing”. Ada Lovelace is credited with writing the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer. The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer.
Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623. During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors. Although many initially believed it was impossible that computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it gradually became accepted among the greater academic population. Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base. World War II for communications they wanted kept secret.
The large-scale decryption of Enigma traffic at Bletchley Park was an important factor that contributed to Allied victory in WWII. The start of the “Digital Revolution”, which includes the current Information Age and the Internet. A formal definition of computation and computability, and proof that there are computationally unsolvable and intractable problems. The concept of a programming language, a tool for the precise expression of methodological information at various levels of abstraction. In cryptography, breaking the Enigma code was an important factor contributing to the Allied victory in World War II. Scientific computing enabled practical evaluation of processes and situations of great complexity, as well as experimentation entirely by software. It also enabled advanced study of the mind, and mapping of the human genome became possible with the Human Genome Project.
Computer graphics and computer-generated imagery have become ubiquitous in modern entertainment, particularly in television, cinema, advertising, animation and video games. Modern computers enable optimization of such designs as complete aircraft. Artificial intelligence is becoming increasingly important as it gets more efficient and complex. There are many applications of AI, some of which can be seen at home, such as robotic vacuum cleaners. Researchers use ethnographic observation and automated data collection to understand user needs, then conduct usability tests to refine designs.
Also, in the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACM—turingineer, turologist, flow-charts-man, applied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist. A folkloric quotation, often attributed to—but almost certainly not first formulated by—Edsger Dijkstra, states that “computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes. The design and deployment of computers and computer systems is generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science. The relationship between computer science and software engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by disputes over what the term “software engineering” means, and how computer science is defined. The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis.